The winged stone (2005) by José Watanabe and A table in the thick of the forest (2010) by Carlos López Degregori. From ontological to orientational metaphors.

Project: Research

Project Details

Project summary

José Watanabe (2008) and Carlos López Degregori (2018) make use of ontological and orientational metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). The research attempts to compare the work of these two authors by examining, above all, two contemporary collections of poems: La piedra alada (Watanabe, 2005) and Una mesa en la espesura del bosque (López Degregori, 2010). Three analytical perspectives will be used: cognitive linguistics, Cultural Rhetoric and General Textual Rhetoric. From the first, the classification into ontological, orientational and structural metaphors will be assimilated (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). From the second, the interdiscursive analysis will be taken (Albaladejo, 2008, 2013), which involves comparing poems, establishing the link between style resources and world views. Likewise, the contributions of the General Textual Rhetoric of Giovanni Bottiroli (1993, 1997, 2006, 2013, 2018) and Stefano Arduini (2000) will be taken to observe how in a literary work there is not a single style, but a plurality of styles of expression. according to the polyphonic vision of Mikhail Bakhtin (2008).


Is there a relationship between ontological or orientational metaphors and the critical consciousness of the modern poet and the spatialization of the poetic subject in the contemporary world? To answer this question, we will use three theoretical frameworks. The first is cognitive linguistics (Lakoff & Johnson, 2003) which highlights that human thought is largely metaphorical in nature and classifies such metaphors as structural, ontological and orientational. The second is Cultural Rhetoric (Albaladejo, 2008, 2013), which formulates categories such as interdiscursivity, ectopic literature, and communicative cenesthesia. The third is Giovanni Bottiroli's (1993, 1997, 2006, 2013) and Stefano Arduini's (2000) General Textual Rhetoric, which highlights the fact that styles fight each other within a literary work. The fundamental purpose is to verify, through an interdiscursive analysis, how the functioning of ontological and orientational metaphors exists, and how this particularity is articulated with the critical consciousness of the modern poet (Friedrich, 1974; Luhmann, 1997; Paz, 1985) and the spatialization of the subject in contemporary poetry (Collot, 2005; Puppo and Salomone, 2017). This implies that both Watanabe and López Degregori formulate the poetics of the open work (Eco, 1985) so that the reader actively completes the meaning that the poet has barely outlined. In short, the poem becomes a significant provocation, as it requires the reader to use their imagination to complete the meaning of the text.
Short titleThe Winged Stone (2005) and A Table in the Thick of the Forest (2010)
Effective start/end date1/04/2231/03/23


  • Universidad de Lima: PEN48,500.00


  • metaphor
  • metonymy
  • orientational
  • ontological
  • poetry
  • spatialization

Research areas and lines

  • Languages ​​and speeches

Kind of research

  • Basic


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