A generalised component-based model for semi-rigid beam-to-column connections including axial force versus bending moment interaction is presented. The detailed formulation of the proposed analytical model is fully described in this paper, as well as all the analytical expressions used to evaluate the model properties. Detailed examples demonstrate how to use this model to predict moment-rotation curves for any axial force level. Numerical results, validated against experimental data, form the basis of a tri-linear approach to characterise the force-displacement relationship of the joint components. The relationship of the present development to key prior studies of this topic is also explained. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.