This paper identifies the profiles of Brazilian firms according to their use of knowledge management (KM) practices, and then compares both innovative performance and organisational performance among these profiles. It contributes to the knowledge-based view literature by extending our knowledge about the most efficient configurations of KM practices in emerging countries. A sample of 206 Brazilian firms was surveyed, and cluster analysis was used for identifying the firm profiles. We found that in emerging countries like Brazil, there are different firm profiles regarding the KM practices they use, and these configurations may lead the firm to different levels of performance. Specifically, we found that firms that achieve superior innovation performance have configurations of KM practices that include a high use of strategic management of knowledge, Information and communication technologies (ICT) that supports KM, and three knowledge-based human resource management practices: recruitment, training and development, and appraisal.