Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are severe mental disorders that pose important challenges for diagnosis by sharing common symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations. The underlying pathophysiology of both disorders remains largely unknown, and the identification of biomarkers with potential to support diagnosis is highly desirable. In a previous study, we successfully discriminated SCZ and BD patients from healthy control (HC) individuals by employing proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). In this study, 1H-NMR data treated by chemometrics, principal component analysis (PCA) and supervised partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), provided the identification of metabolites present only in BD (as for instance the 2,3-diphospho-D-glyceric acid, N-acetyl aspartyl-glutamic acid, monoethyl malonate) or only in SCZ (as isovaleryl carnitine, pantothenate, mannitol, glycine, GABA). This may represent a set of potential biomarkers to support the diagnosis of these mental disorders, enabling the discrimination between SCZ and BD, and among these psychiatric patients and HC (as 6-hydroxydopamine was present in BD and SCZ but not in HC). The presence or absence of these metabolites in blood allowed the categorization of 182 independent subjects into one of these three groups. In addition, the presented data suggest disturbances in metabolic pathways in SCZ and BD, which may provide new and important information to support the elucidation and/or new insights into the neurobiology underlying these mental disorders.